Readers may have seen the news of litigation between Stormy Daniels and Donald Trump that relates to a ‘hush agreement’ that Trump’s lawyer prepared by way of settlement of allegations in 2016. Apparently, that same lawyer paid Ms Daniels $130,000 from his own funds, so keen was he to protect his client’s interests. (IP Draughts’ clients take note: much as he loves them, this ain’t going to happen.)
A copy of the Complaint for Declaratory Relief, to which is attached a copy of the hush agreement, can be found here.
Although Ms Daniels’ lawyer, using colourful language, refers to it as a hush agreement, the document itself has a more conventional and long-winded title: Confidential Settlement Agreement and Mutual Release; Assignment of Copyright and Mutual Non-Disparagment [sic] Agreement. (For more on the subject of non-disparagement clauses in NDAs, see this recent IP Draughts article.)
Ken Adams has beaten IP Draughts to it in demolishing the general drafting of the document. This article will focus on the IP assignment clause. In the following paragraph, PP is a code for Ms Daniels, and DD a code for Donald Trump:
3.2 Transfer of Property Rights to DD. In further consideration for the promises, covenants and consideration herein, PP hereby transfers and conveys to DD all of PP’s respective rights, title and interest in and to the Property, and any and all physical and intellectual property rights related thereto. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, PP does hereby sell, assign, and transfer to DD, his successors and assigns, throughout the universe in perpetuity, all of PP’s entire right, title, and interest (including, without limitation, all copyrights and all extensions and renewals of copyrights), of whatever kind or nature in and to the Property, without reservation, condition or limitation, whether or not such rights are now known, recognized or contemplated, and the complete, unconditional and unencumbered ownership and all possessory interest and rights in and to the Property, which includes, but is not limited to the originals, copies, negatives, prints, positive, proof sheets, CD-roms, DVD-roms, duplicates, outtake and the results of any other means of exhibiting, reproducing, storing, recording and/or archiving any of the Property or related material, together with all rights of action and claims for damages and benefits arising because of any infringement of the copyright to the Property, and assigns and releases to DD any and all other proprietary rights and usage rights PP may own or hold in the copyright and/or Property, or any other right in or to the Property. PP assigns and transfers to DD all of the rights herein granted, without reservation, condition or limitation and agrees that PP reserves no right of any kind, nature or description related to the Property and contents therein. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if any of the rights herein granted are subject to termination under section 203 of the Copyright Act, or any similar provisions of the Act or subsequent amendments thereof, PP hereby agrees to re-grant such rights to DD immediately upon such termination. All rights granted herein or agreed to be granted hereunder shall vest in DD immediately and shall remain vested in perpetuity. DD shall have the to freely assign, sell, transfer or destroy the Property as he desires. DD shall have the to register sole copyright in and to any of the Property with the US Copyright Office. DD shall also have the right, in respect to the Property, to add to, subtract from, change, arrange, revise, adapt, into any and all form of expression or tangible communication, and the right to combine any of the Property with any other works of any kind and/or to create derivative works with any of the Property, and to do with it as she so deems. To the fullest extent allowable under the applicable law, PP shall irrevocably waive and assign to DD any of PP’s so-called “moral rights” or “droit moral” (laws for the protection of copyrights outside of the United States), if any, or any similar rights under any principles of law which PP may now have or later have in the Property. With respect to and in furtherance of the above, PP agrees to and shall execute and deliver to DD an “Assignment & Transfer of Copyright” in the form attached hereto as Exhibit “B”. For greater certainty the foregoing assignment shall be applicable worldwide.
As if the above assignment language is not detailed enough, the penultimate sentence contemplates the execution of a formal assignment of copyright in the form attached as Exhibit B. Exhibit B is not attached to the complaint.
What, you might wonder, is the “Property” to which this Sisyphean assignment clause relates? According to another clause of the 15-page hush agreement, it seems to be mainly some “still images and/or text messages which were authored by or relate to [Donald Trump]”.
IP Draughts is left wondering how much of the above clause is taken from standard template agreements for US copyright assignments, perhaps those used in the entertainment industry, and how much is down to the idiosyncracies of lawyers who advise complainants and defendants in disputes of this kind. Whatever the reason, this assignment is a long stream of garbage.
There are glimmers of sense in some of the sentences. For instance, there is reference to an assignor’s rights to recover copyright after a term of years under section 203 of the Copyright Act 1976. This right was the subject-matter of an English court case before Arnold J, that was brought by members of Duran Duran, which IP Draughts discussed here. Whether the drafter’s solution to this issue (“PP hereby agrees to re-grant such rights to DD immediately upon such termination”) is legally effective, IP Draughts will leave for US copyright lawyers to comment on.
There are also glimmers of partial sense, where the text refers to moral rights as “laws for the protection of copyrights outside of the United States”. Moral rights are not copyright laws as such, but separate rights that exist in certain copyright works. Contrary to the above wording, moral rights are not capable of being assigned, but they can be waived.
But much of the rest is an incontinent word-stream. What is wrong with a (relatively) simple statement, such as the following, to replace most of the above text?
PP hereby assigns and transfers to DD absolutely, all of PP’s right, title and interest in and to:
(a) the Property; and
(b) all intellectual property in the Property.
PP irevocably and unconditionally waives all moral rights in the Property.
Ideally, we would also have a definition of intellectual property, that listed the various types of IP and made clear that the definition applied to IP existing in any country of the world. If intended, we might add a right to sue for past infringements, which doesn’t seem to be covered by the Trump lawyer’s text. We might also want to broaden the definition of Property in the agreement to include all copies that have been made of the Property, in any medium.
If IP Draughts’ version doesn’t adequately cover all the bases, please could readers enlighten him as to where his version is deficient?